Early intervention and systemic referral services

Early intervention and systemic referral services


Unfortunately, the number of suicides and violence incidents among our K-12 students have been significantly increasing. It is very crucial to develop early intervention and systemic referral services to provide a nurturing learning environment for all students.  It is also essential that we have an accurate and complete profile of every student to create an appropriate intervention and referral services action plan. In this article, we provide school counselors, teachers, administrators and parents with a comprehensive data collection framework and strategies to identify students who need extra social and emotional support.


  1. Failure in one or more subject areas
  2. Drop in grades, lower achievement
  3. Needs directions given individually
  4. Does not ask for help when needed
  5. Prefers to work alone
  6. Does not complete homework
  7. Does not complete in-class assignments
  8. Homework is disorganized or incomplete
  9. Short attention span, easily distracted
  10. Poor short-term memory, e.g., can’tremember one day to the next
  11. Finds it hard to study
  12. Gives up easily
  13. Lacks desire to do well in school
  14. Has demonstrated ability, but does not apply self


  1. Tends to stay to self, withdrawn
  2. Lack of peer relationships
  3. Appears lonely
  4. Slow in making friends
  5. Disturbs other students
  6. Negative leader
  7. Unyielding or stubborn on positions
  8. Argues with teacher
  9. Hits and/or pushes other students
  10. Threatens other students
  11. Teases other students
  12. Angered by constructive criticism
  13. Demonstrates lack of self-confidence
  14. Disrespects or defies authority
  15. Regularly seeks to be center of attention
  16. Frequent ridicule from classmates
  17. Appears unhappy/sad
  18. Lacks control in unstructured situations
  19. Change in friends
  20. Sexual behavior in public
  21. Difficulty in relating to others
  22. Talks freely about drugs/alcohol
  23. Other social behavior of concern


  1. Defiance, violation of rules
  2. Blaming, denying, not accepting responsibility
  3. Fighting
  4. Cheating
  5. Sudden outbursts of anger, verbally abusive to others
  6. Lack of impulse control
  7. Obscene language, gestures
  8. Noisy, boisterous at inappropriate times
  9. Crying for no apparent reason
  10. Highly active, agitated
  11. Erratic behavior
  12. General changes in behavior patterns


  1. Underweight
  2. Overweight
  3. Smells of tobacco, alcohol marijuana
  4. Wears clothes that challenge the dress code or are inappropriate
  5. Appears tense, on edge
  6. Slurred or impaired speech
  7. Appears sleepy, lethargic
  8. Impaired vision
  9. Impaired hearing
  10. Frequent physical injuries
  11. Deteriorating hygiene
  12. Dramatic change in style of clothes
  13. Sleeping in class
  14. Glassy, bloodshot eyes
  15. Dramatic change in style of clothes
  16. Unsteady on feet
  17. Problems with muscle or hand-eye coordination


  1. Attendance problems
  2. Latchkey child
  3. Involvement with community agencies
  4. Death in the immediate family
  5. Chronic illness in immediate family
  6. Divorce or separation
  7. Unemployment
  8. Divorce or separation
  9. Previously identified for drug/alcohol use
  10. Adjudicated for a juvenile offense
  11. Lives with someone other than parent
  12. Known medical problem
  13. Takes medication
  14. Previously involved with counseling
  15. Currently involved with counseling
  16. Previously identified for assistance
  17. Discusses concerns regarding drug/alcohol use in the home
  18. Family member incarcerated or adjudicated

As educators or parents if we observe any of these signs or life skills deficiencies, we must immediately contact the school counselor to develop an action plan to help every child success. In every school, it is very important to establish an “Intervention and Referral Team” to improve academic success, social and emotional development of every child through creating short- and long-term plans

Türkçe Çeviri : Bingül UZEL ( TIKLA )


Dr. Olcay Yavuz

Assistant Professor & Program Coordinator
Educational Leadership & Policy Studies Department
Southern Connecticut State University, America


Olcay Yavuz, Ed.D. Associate Professor, Educational Leadership & Policy Studies Internship Coordinator, 6th Year Professional Diploma with 092 Certification Southern Connecticut State University

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